Many of these are too contextual (see mightybaldking's post) to settle for one name, really. It's different in German, where you usually have the same names regardless of context.
It's fun dictating PHP; "gleich" being "equals", "ungleich" being "not equal to":
$a !== $b && $c === $d
dollar-a ungleichgleich dollar-b andand dollar-c gleichgleichgleich dollar-d
^ is usually referred to as "Dach" (roof), never had anybody say Zirkumflex, or circumflex in English. Hell, in writing it's way easier saying "that ^ character".